Juan de Mesa_Master of Passion - Page 18

name, Pedro de Campaña. Campaña came from Brussels where
a number of painters were already working in a new Italianate
style, some of them, like Jan Gossaert, Jan van Scorel and Maarten
van Heemskerck, travelling to Rome themselves. According to
Francisco Pacheco’s early seventeenth-century Arte de la Pintura,
Campaña had spent time in Italy, and, like Alejo Fernández and
Roque Balduque, his paintings combine Italian and Flemish
elements in the Late Rennaisance or Mannerist style. Campaña’s
Descent from the Cross for the convent of Santa María de Gracia
follows Marcantonio’s 1520 engraving after Raphael, and is
comparable in its technique and colour-scheme to the work of
Raphael’s pupil, Polidoro de Caravaggio.15
Another northern artist who was influential in Seville was
Ferdinand Sturm, known locally as Hernando de Esturmio.
Sturm arrived in Seville in 1537, bringing with him a style heavily
influenced by northern Renaissance masters such as Van Scorel
and Van Heemskerck. His most important work is the altarpiece of
The Evangelists in Seville Cathedral (1553-1555). At about the same
time a local artist, Luis de Vargas, returned to Seville after several
decades in Rome working with followers of Raphael like Perino
del Vaga. Like Campaña, Vargas brought back direct knowledge
of Italian paintings, and his most celebrated work, the Allegory of
the Immaculate Conception (1561, Seville Cathedral), follows Vasari’s
version of the same subject (1540-1541, Florence, Santi Apostoli).
Although Seville’s status as a significant hub of international
Fig. 8 Roque Balduque and Guillén Ferrant, Calvary, 1547-1551, wood, parish church of Santa María de Cáceres.
trade made it one of the most important artistic centres in the
peninsula, sculptors arriving from other parts of Spain also
brought with them new ideas and influences. Several sculptors
came from Avila where the cathedral had provided fertile
Fernández’s model would endure for several decades under the
a carving of the same subject attributed to Passchier Borman from
ground for artists creating Italianate monuments in stone. Isidro
influence of the Flemish woodcarver Roque Balduque (d. 1561).
the well-known Brussels-based family of sculptors (figs. 8 and 9).
de Villoldo (d. 1560), a disciple of the Italian trained Alonso
First documented in 1534 as Roque Flamenco, his name appears
Both figures are portrayed in twisted poses with similar expressive
Berruguete, arrived in Seville in 1553. Commissioned to produce
elsewhere as Roque Balduc, and it has been suggested that he came
hands and faces; but whereas Borman’s drapery appears heavy,
an altarpiece in polychromed wood for the charterhouse of
from Bois-le-Duc (‘s-Hertogenbosch) in Brabant. The cliffs, trees,
with deep, angular folds, Balduque’s resembles the finer, more
Santa María de las Cuevas, Villoldo left the work incomplete
and castles rising sharply behind the main group in Balduque’s
tightly-draped cloth depicted in prints such as Marcantonio’s after
when he died around 1560. His widow asked another Avilan,
1545 polychromed Entombment in the collegiate church of Nuestra
Raphael. It is significant that some of the iconographical types now
Juan Bautista Vázquez (1510-1588) – who had arrived in the
Señora de la Asunción in Osuna are distinctly northern. Between
above all associated with Spanish sculpture – such as the standing
city in 1557 – to finish it off. Vázquez had also worked with
1547 and 1551 he produced with Guillén Ferrant the magnificent
Infant Christ and the head of John the Baptist on a plate – were
Berruguete but, unlike Villoldo, is thought to have travelled
retablo mayor or high altarpiece of the church of Santa María in
common in Flanders by 1500.
to Italy himself. The distinguished early twentieth-century
Cáceres. Here the unpolychromed cedar figures bear significant
art historian Manuel Gómez-Moreno attributed to Vázquez
resemblance to Brabantine work of the period. The sculpture of
Probably the most important artist working in Seville in this period
Fig. 9 Passchier Borman (attributed), Saint John the Evangelist, ca. 1500,
a faithful, marble copy in Avila Cathedral of Michelangelo’s
John the Evangelist from its Calvary is comparable, for example, to
was the painter Pieter de Kempeneer, known also by his hispanized
oak, Aachen, Suermondt-Ludwig Museum.
Pietà from Saint Peter’s in Rome.16


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