Paintings of the Man of Sorrows by Titian and his studio
28. This memo was published by María del Rosario Falcó
y Osorio, Duquesa de Berwick y de Alba, Condesa de
Siruete, Documentos escogidos del archivio de la casa de Alba
(Madrid, 1891), p. 465, together with Philip’s holograph
reply. Pedro Beroqui, Tizian en el Museo del Prado (Madrid:
Hauser y Menet, 1946), p.122, was the first to draw
attention to the exchange in an art-historical context.
29. Beroqui, Tizian, p.122; Charles Hope, “Studies in the
Sources and Documents Relating to the Life and Work
of Titian,” 4 vols. (PhD diss., University of Oxford,
1975), IV, no. 1324, as of August that year because
Philip’s response mentions the project of ordering the
Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence from Titian. Incidentally,
while Philip says nothing about the Nuestra Señora y
Christo he does refer to the portrait: “El retrato de
my hermana ha recevido, y no es de los muy buenos
...” which demonstrates his awareness of qualitative
variations in Titian’s work.
30. “Con ésta embio á V. M la respuesta de los dip[utados]
de Aragon, que en lo del baul que traya cosas [de la]...]
princesa no me paresce que ha avido remedio. Lo de
los quadros hizieron bien: ay embio á V, mag.d uestra
el suyo, que embia la Emperatriz; los otros son unos
pequeños de N.S.a y Christo que me enbia Ticiano.”
31. “Por la imagen de Nuestra Signora que dize tiene
hecho para mi le beso las manos, y quando venga la
cena yo acordaré à Su Magestad.” Lionello Puppi, ed.,
Tiziano. L’Epistolario (Florence: Alinari, 2012), no. 219,
pp. 267-268.
32. Of course “Nuestra Signora” could refer to a Virgin
of any type, with or without the Child, but while it
might be possible to argue that the Madonna of the
March letter is distinct from the “Nuestra Signora”
of the August memo, to do so would introduce an
unnecessary complication.
33. Thus Russell, Mater Dolorosa sale catalogue entry, p. 12,
following Hope, states that the pair was “in fact painted
for Gonzalo Perez”.
34. First noted by Detlev von Hadeln, “Some Little-Known
Works by Titian,” The Burlington Magazine 45 (1924):
pp. 179-180; Dal Pozzolo in Tiziano. L’Ultimo atto, ed.
Puppi, no. 61, pp. 383-384, proceeding from a different
direction, places Titian’s invention in the later 1550s
and Humfrey, Titian, no. 219, p. 288, in 1555-1560.
35. Wethey’s list of copies (Titian, I, pp. 116-117) of this
type of the Mater Dolorosa (among which he included
the ex-Brooklyn original) comprises twelve items,
to which the examples mentioned above can be
added. Dimensions are approximate, for historical
measurements are notoriously unreliable and some
trimming may well have occurred; but if those given by
Wethey are accepted they divide roughly into five sizes:
a. 82-85 x 68-69 cm.
b. 78-81 x 61-63 cm.
c. 74 x 59 cm.
d. 60-63 x 50-57 cm.
e. 45-50 x 32-39 cm.
See also Carl Peez, Tizians Schmerzenreiche Madonnen
(Vienna: Holder, 1910).
36. What may be further copies of Philip’s pair are listed in
inventories published in Marcus Burke, Peter Cherry,
and Maria L. Gilbert, Spanish Inventories, Collections of
Paintings in Madrid, 1601-1735, 2 vols. (Los Angeles:
The Getty Information Inst., 1997) I, no. 72, Inventory
of Antonio Carnero 1662, p. 659 [14], “Otras dos
pinturas Pequeñas de Un Tamaño de Una bara con
marcos negros de nra S.a y Un ezeomo copia del
Tiziano a ocho ducados Cada Una”, and p. 660
[46], “otras dos pinturas de Un eceomo y nra señora
Dolorida con marcos negros, copias. Vien echas del
tiçiano en diez y seis Ducados cada una 352”; no.
99, Inventory of Ana María de Lezamo 1678, p. 689
[20], “...un quadro de un eccehomo copia del tiçiano
con marco dorado y escarchado del mismo tamaño
en en treentta ducados 330”, and [21] “Una Pintura
de N.r. S.r del mismo tamaño con el marco nero en
treinta Ducadas 330”; no. 113, Inventory of Juan de
Echauz 1687, p. 812 [28], “Dos pinturas La una de
Un eccehomo – La otra de nuestra señora del trapasso
Copias de El tiçiano de poco mas de Bara de Alto y
tres quartas de Ancho con marcos negros y media caña
Angosta Dorada y labrada se tasaron en Dosçientos
Reales 200”.
Examples of the Man of Sorrows alone are found in
no. 21, Inventory of Francisco de Eraso Conde de
Humares 1635, p. 311 [18], “ottro ezeomo de dos
tercia de largo copia del ticiano en ziente y cinquanta
R.s 150”, and [21], “Otro lienzo de nuestro señor con
la cruz a cuestas en seis ducados (which might or might
not be after Titian)”; no. 80, Inventory of Antonio
de Mardones 1666, p. 611 [n. 21], “Un ecceomo del
mismo tamaño copia del tiçiano en trecieno y treinta
reales 330”; nos. 91and 92, Inventory and valuation of
Diego de la Torre 1679, p. 656 [91], “Una pintura de
un ecehomo del tiçiano con su marco dorado y concha
de bara y quarto que tiene una Cortina encarnada”,
and p. 92 [66] “una pintura de un eceomo del tiçiano
con su marco dorado entre tallado y concha de bara
y quarta con una cortina encarnada tasado a once
mil R.3 1100” (this was obviously believed to be an
original and might be identical with one of the versions
that survives); no. 124, Inventory of Nicolás González
de Villa 1726, p. 989 [26], “Otra pintura de Un eze
omo Copia del Tiziano de bara y quarta de Altto y
bara de ancho Con marco de olibo e peral y molduras
dorados en zientto y Veintte Rs 120”.
Of course, many other inventories list paintings of the
Man of Sorrows and/or the Mater Dolorosa but without
specific reference to Titian, such frequently represented
subjects might be by or after many other painters.
37. A version of the Mater Dolorosa, oil on canvas, 82.7 cm
x 68 cm, offered at Dobiaschofsky Auktionen AG, 13
November 2009, lot 306, and again at Dorotheum, 21
April 2010, lot 169, is close enough to the Avila copy
to suggest that it derives from the same original; but
another, oil on canvas, 85 x 64 cm, offered at Christie’s,
South Kensington, 2 December 2008, lot 201, and again
on 28 October 2009, lot 23, shows the Virgin with a red
Paintings of the Man of Sorrows by Titian and his studio
outer garment and a more corrugated undergarment,
close, if not identical, in design to the ex-Brooklyn panel
but taller by 20 cm and wider by 10 cm.
Its dimensions, 68 x 57 cm, are the same as those of
Prado canvas, inv. 358.
Wethey, Titian, I, no. 3, p. 89.
Leticia Ruiz Gómez, Catálogo de las colecciones históricas
de pintura Veneciana del siglo XVI en el Real Monastero de
el Escorial (Madrid: Patrimonio Nacional, 1991), pp.
108-109, who, while acknowledging that it might be
recorded in earlier centuries, notes that it can be traced
securely only to 1857. It is currently dated to the later
sixteenth century and attributed to an unidentified
Spanish painter (information from Dr Perez de Tudela
Bert W. Meijer in Musei e Gallerie di Milano. Pinacoteca
Ambrosiana, I, Dipinti dal medioevo alla metà del Cinquecento,
ed. Alessandro Rovetta et al. (Milan: Electa, 2005),
no. 115, pp. 293-294. These dimensions are close to
those of the reduced copy of the Mater Dolorosa in
San Gaetano. It is presumably coincidental that the
Ambrosiana and the Escorial both have versions of the
Adoration of the Magi and the Man of Sorrows.
An unusual technical feature of the Ambrosiana
Man of Sorrows is that a strip some 2 to 3 cm wide
along the right side is left virtually unpainted, as
is another at the upper edge some 3 to 4 cm wide,
with the exception of the top of Christ’s head which
extends into this strip. I am unable to offer a coherent
explanation of this phenomenon, which I do not
recall from any other painting by Titian. In this
canvas the position of the cane was planned from the
beginning, for a reserve was left for it in the drapery
and the flesh. It is also worth mentioning that there
is a ridging in the paint-surface just to the viewer’s
right of Christ’s head which might indicate some form
below the present surface in this area.
Paul Joannides, “Titian in London and Madrid,”
Paragone 58 (2004): pp. 3-30, p. 17.
Paola della Pergola, “Gli Inventari Aldobrandini,”
Arte Antica e Moderna 12 (1960): pp. 425-444, Inventory
of 1626, Carta 98 (no. 181): “Un quadro con Christo
Ecce Homo che tiene in mano una Canna di mano
di Tiziano del n. 344”. The “n. 344” must refer to a
lost or unlocated earlier inventory; similar numbers
are found with many of the paintings listed in 1626.
It is more likely that this picture entered the collection
of the Duke of Medina de las Torres-Stigliano, who
acquired several Aldobrandini paintings, and is that
recorded in the inventory of his collection of 1641: See
Fernando Bouza, “De Rafael a Ribera y de Nápoles
a Madrid. Nuevos inventarios de la colección Medina
de las de las Torres-Stigliano (1641-1656),” Boletín del
Museo del Prado 27 (2009): pp. 44-71, and no. 21, p.
63: “Un eccehomo con la canna in mano con cornice
indorata liscia d’altezza palmi tre e mezzo e larga dui e
mezzo di mano del detto Titiano.”
My thanks to Derek Johns for his help and to the
present owner for a photograph; although this painting
has not formally been published, those scholars who
have seen it – I have not – concur with the attribution
to Titian and approximate date.
Thanks to the kindness of Dr Andrea Bellieni, I was
able to examine the version held in the reserves of the
Museo Correr (oil on canvas, 76 x 60 cm; see Attilia
Dorrigato, “Correr Museum Paintings Restored in
Honor of Professor W. R. Rearick,” in Studies in Venetian
Art and Conservation, Venice, ed. Attilia Dorigato et al.
[New York: Save Venice Inc., 2004] pp. 11-17) on
12 November 2018, together with Dr Bellieni, Dr
Andrea Donati, and Mr Roberto Sgarbossa. We were
in agreement in considering the painting to be a copy
made by an artist outside Titian’s immediate circle,
probably in the early seventeenth century. It follows the
Escorial and Vienna paintings in the fine hatching lines
distributed over the drapery.
Wethey, Titian, I, p. 88. A “Christo in forma de
Ecce Homo” was owned by Lucas van Uffel in the
mid-seventeenth century (Carlo Ridolfi, Le maraviglie
dell’arte: ovvero Le vite degli illustri pittori veneti e dello stato,
ed. Detlev von Hadeln [Berlin: G. Grote, 1914-1924]
I, p. 198) and was, according to Von Hadeln engraved
by Wenceslas Hollar in 1650 when it was in the Van
Verle collection, see Gustav Parthey, Wenzel Hollar.
Beschreibendes Verzeichniss seiner Kupferstiche (Berlin:
Nicolaischen Buchhandlung, 1853), no. 1511
Inv. 3529; Wolfgang Prohaska, Karl Schutz, Martina
Haja, and Sylvia Ferino-Pagden, Die Gemäldgalerie des
Kunsthistorisches Museums in Wien: Verzeichnis der Gemälde
(Vienna: Brandstatter, 1991), pl. 49 and p. 124.
Miguel Falomir, Tiziano, exh. cat. (Madrid: Museo
Nacional del Prado, 2003), no. 64, pp. 296-297.
Falomir, Tiziano, pp. 80-81, fig. 44 and p. 268.
Inv. 10078113; I owe knowledge of this picture to Dr
Perez de Tudela Gabaldón.
The Dublin painting was, for some forty years,
believed to be by Matteo Cerezo, but that attributional
aberration has long since been discarded. See Wethey
Titian, I, no. 33, Filippo Pedrocco, “Titian’s Ecce Homo
Reconsidered,” Artibus et Historiae 56 (2007): pp. 187196, no. 223, p. 264; Humfrey, Titian, no. 233, p. 304
and Raymond Keaveney in Masterpieces from the National
Gallery of Ireland, exh. cat. (London: National Gallery,
1985), no. 2, pp. 7-9 (Keaveney plausibly suggests that
it was originally accompanied by a Mater Dolorosa).
Beverly Louise Brown and Bernard Aikema, eds.,
Renaissance Venice and the North, exh. cat. (Venice: Palazzo
Grassi, 1999), no. 150, pp. 520-521; Bert W. Meijer in
Musei e Gallerie di Milano, no. 115, pp. 293-294, refers to
the models of Solario.
Two copies of the Dublin canvas are recorded by
Wethey: one, according to him, is a much later work
and need not be discussed; for the other, in the John
and Mable Ringling Museum, Sarasota (oil on canvas,
73 x 59 cm) see Peter Tomory, Catalogue of the Italian
Paintings Before 1800, The John and Mable Ringling Museum
of Art (Sarasota: John & Mable Ringling Museum of
Art, 1976), no. 220, p. 182, and, now, Virginia Brilliant,
Italian, Spanish and French Paintings in the Ringling Museum
of Art (Sarasota and New York: Scala Arts Publishers,
Inc., 2017), no. I.196, p. 325, where it is assigned
to the studio of Titian. Interestingly, William Suida
had suggested the authorship of Simon Peterzano
but – as Peter Humfrey has remarked to me – from
the technical evidence cited by Brilliant, the picture
is probably of the early seventeenth century. A Man
of Sorrows (oil on wood, dated 1562) by Martin de Vos,
which probably depends on a Titianesque prototype
similar in arrangement to the Dublin painting, is
discussed and reproduced in Giorgio Tagliaferro et al.,
Le Botteghe di Tiziano (Florence: Alinari, 2010), p. 355
and fig. 206.
54. Choix de gravures à l’eau forte d’après les peintures de Lucien
Bonaparte (London: Bulmer, 1812).
55. Tancred Borenius, ed., The Picture Gallery of Andrea
Vendramin (London: Medici Society, 1923), pl. 12 and
p. 26: “Attribution possible; the figure corresponding
in reverse (accompanied by two others) in Titian’s late
picture of the same subject in the Hermitage”.
56. Wethey, Titian, I, no. 33, p. 87; Roxelane Cicekli, “Le
thème iconographique de l’ecce homo dans l’œuvre de
Titien. Autour de la toile de la Collection Brukenthal,”
Brvkenthal. Acta Mvsei 94 (2009): pp. 311-325.
57. Ellis Kirkham Waterhouse, “Paintings from Venice
for Seventeenth-Century England: Some Records
of a Forgotten Transaction,” Italian Studies 7 (1952):
pp. 1-23, (p. 15). Teniers’s paintings are reproduced
by Renate Schreiber, “Ein Galeria nach meinem Humor”:
Erzherzog Leopold Wilhelm (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches
Museum; Milan: Skira, 2004), figs. 29 and 31.
58. Jeremy Wood, “Buying and Selling Art in Venice,
London and Antwerp: The Collection of Bartolomeo
Della Nave and the Dealings of James, Third Marquis
of Hamilton, Anthony van Dyck, and Jan and Jacob
van Veerle, c.1637-50,” The Walpole Society 80 (2018):
pp. 1-202, nos. 16 and 17, pp. 93-94.
59. Gert Adriani, Anton van Dyck: italienisches Skizzenbuch
eine Nachauflage der 1940 von Gert Adriani herausgegebenen
Lichtdruck-Publikation mit Erlauterungen und Katalog versehen
(Vienna: Schroll, 1940), f. 21v, and Michael Jaffé, The
Devonshire Collection of Northern European Drawings, 5 vols.
(Turin: A. Allemandi, 2002), I, nos. 1024-1026, pp.
86-87. Including this drawing, Van Dyck made five
copies after different versions of the Man of Sorrows or
the Mocking or the Ecce Homo, all labelled as by Titian,
grouped on fols. 20v-21v. None of them corresponds
precisely to an example known in an autograph picture
or a copy although Jaffé provides approximate
comparatives. They comprise
(20 verso, lower left): A Man of Sorrows, with
Christ’s head turned down to His right, as in the
Dublin canvas, His forearms placed horizontally
with the left wrist crossed over the right, the cane
rising left to right across His left shoulder and a
drapery more extensive than in other versions.
2. (20 verso, lower right): A Man of Sorrows seen
obliquely from the left, with Christ looking down,
His arms angled downwards with the right
wrist crossed over the left and drapery over His
right shoulder, without cane. This corresponds
reasonably closely, in reverse, to Van Dyck’s own
rendering of the subject in the canvas in Barber
Institute, Birmingham and still more so to that
in the Courtauld Gallery, which was engraved by
Lucas Vorsterman II (see Richard Verdi, Anthony
Van Dyck, 1599-1641, ‘Ecce Homo’ and the ‘Mocking of
Christ’, exh. cat. [Princeton: Princeton University
Art Museum; Birmingham: the Barber Institute of
Fine Arts, 2002-2003], pp. 22-29, 45-47.)
3. (21 recto, centre left): Man of Sorrows seen frontally,
with His head turned down to His right, His left
wrist crossed over His right wrist and drapery over
both shoulders. It is unclear whether this rendering
includes a cane.
4. (21 recto, centre right): The Mocking with Christ
seen frontally, His head tilted back, His right wrist
crossed over His left and with drapery across
His chest at the level of His collar bone. The
head of a middle-aged man in profile is directly
to Christ’s; left, the viewer’s right, and another
head, seemingly of a younger man, tilted forward,
against Christ’s left shoulder.
5. (21 verso, upper centre) Christ seen frontally, as in
the Sibiu painting, but with the head of a mocking
man immediately to His left, the viewer’s right.
Puppi, Tiziano L’Epistolario, no. 222, pp. 270-271.
“Il Titiano fù hiersera qui a casa a dirmi che li dui
quadri devoti, cioè del Christo e della Madonna son
finiti di man sua e che al altro vi attenderà.” Georg
Gronau, Documenti Artistici Urbinate (Florence: G. C.
Sansoni, 1936), no. 70, p. 103.
Gabriella Incerpi in Tiziano nelle Gallerie Fiorentini, eds.
Mina Gregori et al., exh. cat. (Florence: Palazzo Pitti,
1979), no. 37, pp. 156-157; and the copy 37b (oil on
canvas, 67 x 58 cm), pp. 158-160; Hope, Titian, 1980.
This Virgin and Child with two Angels came with Vittoria
della Rovere to Florence and remained there until
1802, after which it disappears from the record. The
copy is plausibly attributed to Francesco Vecellio, who
died in 1559 and if this is correct, it cannot be after
a painting supplied to Guidobaldo in 1565 but would
follow an earlier version of the same composition;
which, in turn, would imply that Guidobaldo’s painting
– if it was his – was a repetition, not a new creation.
See also Tagliaferro in Le Botteghe di Tiziano, pp. 9799, and fig. 41, dated ca. 1540-1550. An apparently
unpublished and rather attractive variant of this
composition, omitting the left-hand angel, the Child
more complexly posed, and the young Saint John
inserted at lower left, was offered at Christie’s, Paris, 19
September, 2017, lot, 2, oil on canvas, 78 x 71 cm, as
from the studio of Titian.
Irina Artemieva in Tiziano: L’ultimo atto, no. 66, p. 387.
Puppi, Tiziano. L’Epistolario, nos. 238 and 239, pp. 293294.
“Un quadro in tela alto b.a 1 1/8, large b.a 7/8,


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