Colnaghi Foundation Journal 01 - Catalog - Page 155
The Sutherland Gallery at Stafford House
The Sutherland Gallery at Stafford House
Mrs Jameson, Companion to the Most Celebrated Private
Galleries of Art in London (London: Saunders and Otley,
1844), pp. 165-223.
Gustav Friedrich Waagen, Treasures of Art in Great Britain,
vol II (London: John Murray, 1854), pp. 240-256.
I am grateful to James Yorke and to Lord Strathnaver
for their kindness in treating me to expert guided tours
respectively of Lancaster House and of Dunrobin
Catalogue of Pictures in the Gallery at Stafford House
(London: P.&D. Colnaghi, 1862).
James Yorke, Lancaster House. London’s Greatest Town House
(London / New York: Merrell, 2001).
See Peter Humfrey, “The Stafford Gallery at
Cleveland House and the 2nd Marquess of Stafford as
a Collector,” Journal of the History of Collections XXVIII
(2016): pp. 43-55. For a biography of Stafford, see Eric
Richards in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, vol.
XXIII, (Oxford: OUP, 2004), pp. 104-109.
For essential biographies, see respectively Karen R.
Fairclough in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, vol.
XVII, (Oxford: OUP, 2004), pp. 991-993; W. C. Lowe
in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, vol. XXIII, pp.
For the Stafford-Sutherland fortune and its
management, see Eric Richards, The Leviathan of Wealth.
The Sutherland Fortune in the Industrial Revolution (London:
See Peter Humfrey, “The 3rd Duke of Bridgewater
as a Collector of Old Master Paintings,” Journal of the
History of Collections XXVII (2015): pp. 211-225.
Reynolds’s Elizabeth, Countess of Sutherland of 1786
remains at Dunrobin Castle in Sutherland, as do four
family portraits by Romney. Romney’s Leveson-Gower
Children of 1777 is now at the Abbot Hall Art Gallery,
Kendal; Kauffman’s Family of Earl Gower of 1772 is
now in the National Museum of Women in the Arts,
For Stafford’s “English Gallery”, see James Elmes,
“Catalogue of the pictures by English Masters in the
possession of the Most Noble the Marquis of Stafford,”
Annals of the Fine Arts III (1819): pp. 419-422. For the
paintings at Trentham, see John Preston Neale, Views of
the Seats of Noblemen and Gentlemen, in England, Wales,
Scotland and Ireland, vol. III (London: W. H. Reid, 1820)
For the wider context for the opening of the
Stafford Gallery to the public and for an analysis
of the Marquess’s motives, see Anne Nellis Richter,
“Improving public taste in the private interior:
gentlemen’s galleries in post-Napoleonic London,”
in Architectural Space in Eighteenth-Century Europe, eds.
Denise Amy Baxter and Meredith Martin (Farnham /
Burlington, VT: Routledge, 2010), pp. 169-186.
See, in particular: John Britton, Catalogue Raisonné of
the Pictures belonging to the Most Honourable the Marquis
of Stafford in the Gallery of Cleveland House (London:
1808); William Hazlitt, “The Marquis of Stafford’s
Gallery”, in Sketches of the Principal Picture-Galleries in
England (1824), in Complete Works of William Hazlitt, ed.
P. P. Howe, vol. X (London: Dent, 1932), pp. 27-36;
Peter George Patmore, British Galleries of Art (London:
G. & W.B. Whittaker, 1824), pp. 217-247; Charles
M. Westmacott, British Galleries of Painting and Sculpture
(London: Sherwood, Jones, & Co.,1824); John Young,
A Catalogue of the Collection of the Most Noble Marquess
of Stafford at Cleveland House, 2 vols. (London: Hurst,
Robinson, & Co., 1825)
William Young Ottley, Engravings of the Most Noble The
Marquis of Stafford’s Collection of Pictures in London, 4 vols.
(London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1818).
This is the kind of arrangement dubbed by Giles Waterfield
the “picturesque hang”: see Giles Waterfield, “Picture
hanging and gallery decoration,” in Palaces of Art. Art Galleries
in Britain 1790-1990, ed. Giles Waterfield, exh. cat. (London:
Dulwich Picture Gallery, 1991), pp. 49-51. The hang at the
Stafford Gallery was probably directly inspired by that at
the Louvre, as was recorded in a series of etchings made
by Maria Cosway in 1802. For these, see Stephen Lloyd,
Richard and Maria Cosway. Regency Artists of Taste and Fashion,
exh. cat. (Edinburgh: Scottish National Portrait Gallery,
1995), pp. 89-90.
The inspiration here, too, is likely to have been the Louvre,
the pedagogical mission of which is reflected in the division
of the paintings into broad schools.
Bessborough sale, Christie’s, 7 February 1801, lot 68.
See Humfrey, “The Stafford Gallery,” p. 4.
See Humfrey, “The Stafford Gallery,” pp. 4-5.
Stafford’s taste is clearly mirrored in the “gallery
picture” by Pieter Christoffel Wonder, Patrons and
Lovers of Art of 1826-30 (Private Collection), which
presents an imaginary display of a selection of works
by the most admired Old Masters in art collections in
London. See Ellinoor Bergvelt, “Patrons and Lovers of Art
(1826-30): de ideale National Gallery van P. C. Wonder
en Sir John Murray,” in P. C. Wonder (1777-1852).
Een Utrechter in London, ed. Elinoor Bergvelt, exh. cat.
(Utrecht: Centraal Museum, 2015), pp. 44-75.
For the following, see Yorke, Lancaster House, pp. 11-32.
See Susanna Brooke, “Private Art Collections and
London Town Houses 1780-1830,” (PhD diss.,
University of Cambridge, 2013), pp. 103-104.
Sutherland archive, Staffordshire Record Office,
Stafford, D593/C/23/10 (6)
Quoted by William T. Whitley, Art in England 1800-1837,
vol. II (Cambridge: University Press, 1928), p. 146.
It was presented for sale by Day at Christie’s on 21 June
1833, lot 36, and was acquired by the new Duke after it
was bought in. It was then transferred from temporary
storage in Bridgewater House to Stafford House in
December 1834 (Yorke, Lancaster House, p. 185).
Another ceiling painting to remain in situ is the Allegory
with the Three Graces in the North-East Ante-Room,
formerly attributed to Veronese but now to Zelotti.
Although installed by the 2nd Duke in ca. 1836-1837,
the painting may have already been acquired for the
purpose by his father.
For the 2nd Duke of Sutherland and the
management of his inherited fortune, see Richards,
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography especially
pp. 12-13, 292-296; Eric Richards, “An anatomy
of the Sutherland fortune: income, consumption,
investments and returns, 1780-1880,” Business History
XXI (1979): pp. 45-78 (pp. 52-57).
Annie Tindley, The Sutherland Estate, 1850-1920.
Aristocratic Decline, Estate Management and Land Reform
(Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2010), p. 3.
For Duchess Harriet, see Karen D. Reynolds in Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography, XXIII, pp. 119-121;
Natalie Livingstone, The Mistresses of Cliveden (London:
Hutchinson, 2015), pp. 259-377.
Christie’s, 25 May 1838, lot 111.
For the Sutherlands’ houses, see Lord Ronald Gower,
My Reminiscences, vol. I (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, &
Co., 1883), pp. 1-10 (Stafford House), 11-24 (Cliveden),
35-37 (Trentham) and 38-57 (Dunrobin).
For the building history and interior decoration of
Stafford House, see John Cornforth, “Stafford House
revisited,” Country Life, 7 October and 14 November
1968, pp. 1188-1191, 1257-1261; David Pearce,
London’s Mansions. The Palatial Houses of the Nobility
(London: B.T. Batsford, 2001), pp. 195-201; and
especially Yorke, Lancaster House, pp. 15-83.
Gustav Friedrich Waagen, Art and Artists in England, vol.
I (London: John Murray, 1838), p. 43.
Cornforth, “Stafford House revisited,” p. 1188.
Prince Herrmann von Pückler-Muskau, A Tour in
Germany, Holland and England (1832), quoted by Yorke,
Lancaster House, pp. 338-9.
For the 2nd Duke as a collector, see Yorke, Lancaster
House, pp. 125-44.
See Yorke, Lancaster House, p. 142.
Quoted by Yorke, Lancaster House, p. 128.
See Anthony M. Clark,“Thorvaldsen and his Ganymede
and the Eagle,” Minneapolis Institute of Arts Bulletin LV
(1966): pp. 25-35; Yorke, Lancaster House, p. 128.
See Yorke, Lancaster House, pp. 137-138.
Berwick sale, Phillips, 15 April 1826, lots 125 and 186.
Westall sales, Phillips, 11-12 May 1827; 29-30 June 1830.
See The Monthly Magazine and British Register, 1 July 1806,
See Timothy Clayton, “From Fireworks to Old
Masters: Colnaghi and Printselling ca. 1760-ca. 1880,”
in Colnaghi: The History, ed. Jeremy Howard (London:
Colnaghi, 2010), pp. 8-11.
For Smith and Lord Francis, see Charles SebagMontefiore, with Julia Armstrong-Totten, A Dynasty of
Dealers. John Smith and his Successors 1801-1924 (Arundel:
The Roxburgh Club, 2013), pp. 83-84.
Sutherland sale, Christie’s, 24 November 1961, lot
66; Sotheby’s, 12 December 1990, lot 90. Attributed
by Beck, Hans-Ulrich Beck, Jan van Goyen. Ein
Oeuvreverzeichnis, vol. IV, (Amsterdam / Doornspijk:
Davaco, 1972-1991), p. 217, to Adriaen van der Kabel,
on the basis of a monogram.
Quoted by Yorke, Lancaster House, p. 128. See also
Stephen Bann, Paul Delaroche. History Painted (London:
Reaktion Books, 1997), p. 146; Christopher Riopelle,
“Lost and Found,” in Painting History. Delaroche and Lady
Jane Grey, eds. Stephen Bann and Linda Whiteley, exh.
cat. (London: The National Gallery, 2010), pp. 17-23.
For Winterhalter’s Decameron, see Richard Ormond
and Carol Blackett-Ord, Franz Xaver Winterhalter and the
Courts of Europe, exh. cat. (London: National Portrait
Gallery, 1987), p. 30.
For the Sutherlands’ patronage of Feuchère and other
French sculptors, see Philip Ward-Jackson, “A.-E.
Carrier-Belleuse, J. -J. Feuchère and the Sutherlands,”
Burlington Magazine CXXVII (1985): pp. 146-143.
Yorke, Lancaster House, p. 130.
For Soult as a collector, see Nicholas Penny, National
Gallery Catalogues: The Sixteenth Century Italian Paintings,
II: Venice 1540-1600 (London: The National Gallery,
2008), pp. 264-265.
For the Lenoir Collection of portraits, see Alexandre
Lenoir, Musée des Monuments Français, Recueil de Portraits
Inédits (Paris: 1809) Lord Ronald Gower, The Lenoir
Collection of Original French Portraits at Stafford House
(London: Maclure & Macdonald, 1874); Yorke,
Lancaster House, p. 134.
See Yorke, Lancaster House, pp. 136-137 and 134
For the “Lucca Collection” and the sale by private
treaty of 94 pictures in London in 1840, see Giorgia
Mancini and Nicholas Penny, National Gallery Catalogues:
The Sixteenth Century Italian Paintings, III: Bologna and
Ferrara (London: The National Gallery, 2016), pp. 473478. The authors argue (p. 475) that the Honthorst had
already been reserved for the 2nd Duke by his agent in
Italy, the Venetian Carlo Galvani.
Strawberry Hill sale, April-May 1842, 15th day, lot 25.
A letter on 23 March 1846 from G. J. Morant to
Thomas Jackson, the Duke’s private secretary, is quoted
by Yorke, Lancaster House, pp. 141-142.
Thomas Smith, Recollections of the British Institution
(London: Simpkin & Marshall, 1860), p. 21.
See Nicholas Tromans, “Museum or market?: the
British Institution,” in Governing Cultures. Art Institutions
in Victorian London, eds. Paul Barlow and Colin Trodd
(Aldershot / Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2000), pp.
44-55 (p. 50).
Jeremy Maas, Gambart: Prince of the Victorian Art World
(London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1975), pp. 16-17; Dianne
Sachko Macleod, Art and the Victorian Middle Class
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 4.
There is a letter of 25 July 1840 from Martin’s son
Leopold acknowledging receipt of payment in the
Sutherland archive, Staffordshire Record Office,
Stafford, D593/ P/22/4/4.
For these events, see Eric George, The Life and Death
of Benjamin Robert Haydon, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Clarendon
Press, 1967), pp. 124, 235, 297; David B. Brown in
Benjamin Robert Haydon 1786-1846, exh. cat. (Grasmere:
Wordsworth Trust, 1996), p. 21.
For this work, see Richard Ormond, Sir Edwin Landseer,
exh. cat. (Philadelphia: The Philadephia Museum of Art
and London: The Tate Gallery), pp. 128-129; Yorke,
Lancaster House, p. 140.
Yorke, Lancaster House, pp. 140, 145.
See Ormond and Blackett-Ord, Franz Xaver Winterhalter,
pp. 193-194; Yorke, Lancaster House, p. 140.
See the lists of loans in Algernon Graves, A Century of
Loan Exhibitions 1813-1912, 5 vols. (London: 1913-1915).
Tromans, “Museum or market?”, p. 52.
Jameson, Companion, pp. 170-1.
Recorded by Waagen, Art and Artists, II, p. 242, with
an attribution to the Bellinesque painter Pietro degli
Jameson, Companion, pp. 167-168. See also Brooke,
“Private Art Collections,” pp. 104-107.
Jameson, Companion, p. 225.
See Giles Waterfield, “The Town House as a Gallery
of Art,” The London Journal XIX no. 1 (1994): pp. 45-66
(p. 60); Brooke, “Private Art Collections,” pp. 106-107.
As noted by Jameson, Companion, p. 228.
William Hazlitt, Criticisms on Art, Second Series, Edited by
his Son (London: C. Templeman, 1844), Appendix II,
pp. vii-xviii; Catalogue of Pictures in the Gallery at Stafford
House, 1862; Cromartie, 4th Duke of Sutherland,
Catalogue of Pictures at Stafford House (London: 1908).
See Johann D. Passavant, Tour of a German Artist in
England, vol. I (London: Saunders and Otley, 1836), pp.
136-147 (visited 1831); Waagen, Art and Artists, I, pp. 4243, II, pp. 240-256 (visited May-June 1835); Jameson,
Companion, pp.165-223 (visited between 1840 and 1844);
Waagen, Treasures, II, pp. 57-73 (visited 1851).
These photographs are reproduced in Pearce, London’s
Mansions, plate 155, and Yorke, Lancaster House, plate 23.
See, for example, the scene of the reception in honour
of Garibaldi from the Illustrated London News of 1864,
reproduced by Yorke, Lancaster House, plate 71. This is
set in the Picture Gallery, looking from north to south;
glimpsed to the left are Andrea del Sarto’s Holy Family
and Delaroche’s Strafford, and to the right Honthorst’s
Christ before the High Priest.
These were modelled in 1840 by John Henning. See
Yorke, Lancaster House, pp. 47-48, 125.
For example, Hogarth’ s James Porter of Mortlake (Toledo
Museum of Art) and Reynolds’s Dr Johnson (Houghton
Library, Harvard University), both of which are
recorded at Trentham in 1820, but both of which had
been brought to Stafford House by the time of the
Marquess’s death in 1833.
See Yorke, Lancaster House, p. 134.
For the sale, see Gower, The Lenoir Collection; Yorke, Lancaster
House, p. 149; Nicole Garnier-Pelle, The Condé Museum at the
Château de Chantilly (Paris: Flammarion, 2009).
For the historical context, see David Cannadine, Decline
and Fall of the British Aristocracy (New Haven / London:
Yale University Press, 1990).
For the decay and demolition of Trentham, see John
Forbes-Robertson, “Treasure-houses of art: Trentham
Hall,” The Magazine of Art IV (1881): pp. 205-206;
Cornforth, “Stafford House revisited”; Yorke, Lancaster
House, p. 159; David Haden, The Beauty of Trentham, 2nd
ed. (Stoke-on-Trent: Burslem, 2012), pp. 30-31.
83. Sutherland, 1908; Cromatie, 4th Duke of Sutherland,
Catalogue of Pictures at Dunrobin (London: 1908), and
Catalogue of Pictures at Lilleshall (London: 1909). The
British Library copy of the Stafford House catalogue
includes annotations in pencil against some forty
paintings that had already been consigned to Agnew’s
before the sale of 1913.
84. Duke of Sutherland sale, Christie’s, 8 February 1908.
For the dissolution of the Sutherland Collection, see
Yorke, Lancaster House, pp. 150-151.
85. See Fern Rusk Shapley, National Gallery of Art, Washington:
Catalogue of the Italian Paintings, vol. I (Washington,
DC: The National Gallery of Art, 1979) p. 339.
86. Gabriel Mourey, “La Collection du Duc de
Sutherland a Stafford House,” Les Arts 133/3 (January
1913): pp. 1-32.
87. For the circumstances surrounding the sale of Stafford
House, see Yorke, Lancaster House, pp. 153-161.
88. Duke of Sutherland sale, Christie’s, 11 July 1913.
89. For whom see respectively Penny, National Gallery
Catalogues: The Sixteenth Century Italian Paintings, II, p.
393; Nicholas Penny, National Gallery Catalogues: The
Sixteenth Century Italian Paintings, I: Paintings from Bergamo,
Brescia and Cremona (London: The National Gallery,
2004), pp. 367-370.
90. Bought from the painter’s estate, Schomberg House, 30
March 1789, lot 72, by the future Marquess of Stafford.