Applying Racial Equity to U.S. Federal Nutrition Assistance Programs - Flipbook - Page 57
This appendix contains tools, brief historical context, and analysis of issues mentioned in the paper, and various tables and charts.
Appendix, Tool 1: Questions to Ask to Apply a Racial Equity Lens
Please refer to page 73 for the original methodology. This tool has a series of detailed questions that helped shape the
process of gathering and evaluating information for the paper. While this is a process that was applied to analyze racial equity
in selected federal nutrition programs, it is Bread for the World Institute’s hope that others will find this process helpful in
applying a racial equity lens to policies and programs relevant to their work.
Appendix, Tool 2: What is Racial Equity? 245
According to Race Forward, a national racial justice organization, racial equity is “the systematic fair treatment of people
of all races that results in equitable opportunities and outcomes for everyone.”246 The Center for the Study of Social Policy
describes it as the condition that would be achieved if one’s racial identity no longer predicted the opportunities and barriers
that one experiences.247 To achieve racial equity, we must apply a racial equity lens (see glossary for definition).
Approaches that are targeted to produce equity for all groups lead to the achievement of a universal goal (see graphic below).
Appendix 1: History of Breastfeeding Among African and Indigenous Americans
Low breastfeeding rates among African Americans date back to slavery. Enslaved black mothers were sometimes forced to
stop breastfeeding their own infants to nurse their master’s infants. Sometimes they were permanently separated from their
babies.248 In many instances, each time the master’s wife was pregnant, the enslaved woman was expected to get pregnant as
well so that she could nurse the master’s infant.249 A black mother’s milk did not sustain and protect her own child—rather, it
nourished the babies of the master. White infants received the benefits of breastfeeding, while black infants were left without
this nutritional support.
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