Applying Racial Equity to U.S. Federal Nutrition Assistance Programs - Flipbook - Page 72
Appendix 28: Face-to-Face: Women of color serving other women of color using
successful breastfeeding models
Strong evidence from practitioners of color supports the need for women of color to be supported in ways that address
historical trauma and structural racism. Programs and initiatives that are designed without accounting for this, on the other
hand, have proven to need redesign or improvement. Face-to-face models are critical among women of color since communities
of color have had a historical of facing structural discrimination from white communities, and government entities, in the ways
discussed in Appendices 1, 2, 3 and 27. This history has contributed to significant distrust between communities of color and
white communities, as well as between communities of color and government entities. Face-to-face models allow for trust and
community to be built where it was broken. More importantly, having women of color be the leaders of designing, establishing,
and implementing face-to-face models helps to address the historical distrust that communities of color have of outside people
coming into their community. Women of color from these communities have an understanding of what communities need, and
therefore have additional capacity to respond to these needs in a culturally appropriate way.
Appendix 29: Sustainable Development Goals
Many factors contribute to hunger and food insecurity—see Figure 2 on page 11. The Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs),347 adopted by the United States and 193 other countries in 2015, are 17 interconnected human development goals that
include ending extreme poverty,348 hunger, and malnutrition349 in all its forms by 2030. As an integrated whole, the SDGs do
a good job of identifying other factors that create, sustain, and increase hunger. A few of these are adequate, affordable, and
equitable education, health care, and work opportunities.350
The SDGs emphasize that to improve conditions and enable people to avoid hunger, it is necessary to consider the larger
ecosystem that impacts a person’s or family’s ability to survive and thrive. Structural racial inequities inform our larger
ecosystem by creating and sustaining significant problems such as lack of adequate and affordable health care, housing, city
planning, and education, as well as high levels of unemployment and job segregation, inequities in the criminal justice system,
and disparities in access to full-service grocery stores. Addressing these inequities will disrupt stubborn disparities of high food
insecurity among communities of color.
Appendix 30: Food Insecurity among Southeast Asians by Ethnicity
The chart below includes food insecurity data from nine Southeast Asian ethnic communities for which data is available in
the American Community Survey. The four communities with the highest levels of food insecurity are Burmese (42.9 percent),
Hmong (32.2 percent), Cambodian (23.2 percent), and Vietnamese (20.8 percent).
Food Insecurity among Key Southeast Asian Communities in 2015 (most recent disaggregated data
available for race and ethnicity)
Burmese Hmong Cambodian
Thai Filipino Indonesian Malaysian
SOURCE: DP03. Selected Economic Characteristics. 2011-2015 American Community Survey Selected Population Tables.
NOTE: Since this data is disaggregated by ethnicity, there are higher percentages of food insecurity in some groups (i.e. Burmese), compared to food insecurity rates among
other groups of color where data was not disaggregated by ethnicity/tribe/country of origin (i.e. African American, Indigenous, Latino/a). If data was disaggregated within
these communities of color, we anticipate higher food insecurity disparities among certain groups by ethnicity, tribe, or country of origin.
APPLYING RACIAL EQUITY TO U.S. FEDERAL NUTRITION ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS: SNAP, WIC AND CHILD NUTRITION