Applying Racial Equity to U.S. Federal Nutrition Assistance Programs - Flipbook - Page 76
1 The Institute recognizes that there are many other types of equity, including citizenship
equity. Immigration policies have a significant impact on participation in nutrition programs.
The Institute hopes to incorporate this and other lenses into future work.
2 Refer to pages 12-14 of this report, and also see this source: Blackwell, Angela Glover. “The
Curb-Cut Effect.” Stanford Social Innovation Review. Winter 2017. https://ssir.org/articles/
3 Residents living on or near reservations, as well as all residents of Oklahoma, have the
option to participate in FDPIR. Households that receive FDPIR may also qualify for SNAP,
but they cannot participate in the two programs simultaneously. For more information,
please see Appendix 7.
4 Through the Nutrition Assistance Block Grant, each territory administers the Nutrition
Assistance Program (NAP). NAP functions slightly differently in each territory. For more
information, please see Appendix 7.
5 The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are universal and apply to all countries,
including the United States. Two essential tenets of the SDG framework that will enable the
world to accomplish the goals are to leave no one behind and to reach the populations who
are furthest behind, who face the greatest barriers and hardships, first. If the U.S. takes this
approach to end hunger and food insecurity, the data shows that people of color (including
African American, Indigenous, Latino/a (refer to glossary), Native Hawaiian, and Pacific
Islander communities, and some groups from the Southeast Asian diaspora) consistently
have higher rates of food insecurity than the general population and whites. See Appendix 24
for food insecurity rates by race among all racial groups and Appendix 30 for more on food
insecurity rates among Southeast Asians by ethnicity.
6 Irregular Scheduling and Its Consequences. Briefing Paper #394. Economic Policy Institute. April 2015.https://www.epi.org/files/pdf/82524.pdf
7 “The Self-Assessment Workbook (SAW): Chapter 10 Racial Equity.” Alliance to End
Hunger. 2018. http://alliancetoendhunger.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/SAW-for-HFC-10Racial-Equity.pdf
8 “Nutrition and Early Brain Development.” The Urban Child Institute. March 2011. http://
9 A nutrient-poor diet compromises a child’s ability to develop cognitively and physically
and undermines her health as an adult—but the latter is critical to participating in the workforce and providing for a family. Communities of color are more likely to suffer the health
consequences of nutrient-poor diets, which include diabetes, high blood pressure, and other
10 RTI International (July 2014), Current and Prospective Scope of Hunger and Food Security in
America: A Review of Current Research.
11 USDA ERS. “Trends in U.S. Food Security: 2002-2016.” USDA Interactive Charts and
interactive-charts-and-highlights/#trends and https://www.ers.usda.gov/webdocs/publications/90023/err-256.pdf?v=0
12 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2016. U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, September 2018.
14 The Hamilton Project at the Brookings Institution published research that shows that
U.S. rates of very low food insecurity fell during the Great Recession at the same time as the
stimulus program increased SNAP monthly benefits. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/upfront/2016/04/21/strengthening-snap-to-reduce-food-insecurity-and-promote-economic-growth/
15 Nutrition programs continue to be important even after the recession. In 2012, for instance, the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) lifted 1.3 million people over the poverty
16 In 2015, SNAP kept 8.4 million people out of poverty, including 3.8 million children.
17 The Hamilton Project at the Brookings Institution found that an additional $25 per
month in stimulus funds given to each household decreased food insecurity in 2009 by 2
percentage points from 2008. http://www.hamiltonproject.org/assets/files/twelve_facts_about_
18 In all U.S. states, communities of color are between two and six times as likely to experience hunger and poverty as whites. In South Dakota, communities of color are six times as
likely to experience hunger and poverty as whites. http://www.bread.org/library/us-hungerand-poverty-state-fact-sheets
19 Single race data was used in the calculations. For example, “African American or Black
alone” was selected when calculating food insecurity data.
20 Household Food Security in the United States in 2017. United States Department of
Agriculture. Economic Research Service. Report 256. September 2018. https://www.ers.usda.
21 Read Appendix 24 to see how estimates were calculated and review sources.
22 Note: The majority of Southeast Asian communities are not at disproportionate risk of
food insecurity. Three among the 11 identified ethnic groups within the Southeast Asian
community do have high food insecurity rates: Laotian Americans (20.8 percent), Cambodian Americans (23.2 percent) and Burmese Americans (44.3 percent). See Appendix 30 for a
more detailed chart.
23 “We Have a Story to Tell: Native Peoples of the Chesapeake Region.” National Museum of
the American Indian. Education Office. 2006. https://americanindian.si.edu/sites/1/files/pdf/
24 Racial Wealth Gap Learning Simulation. Policy Packet. Bread for the World Institute.
May 2018. Bread.org/simulation_policypacket
25 Gamblin, Marlysa D. “Ending U.S. Hunger and Poverty by Focusing on Communities
Where it’s Most Likely.” Bread for the World Institute. Briefing Paper, Number 31. March
26 Blackwell, Angela Glover. “The Curb-Cut Effect.” Stanford Social Innovation Review.
Winter 2017. https://ssir.org/articles/entry/the_curb_cut_effect
27 Turner, Ani. “The Business Case for Racial Equity: A Strategy for Growth.” W.K. Kellogg
Foundation. July 2018. https://www.wkkf.org/resource-directory/resource/2018/07/business-case-for-racial-equity
28 “Irregular Scheduling and Its Consequences.” Briefing Paper #394. Economic Policy
Institute. April 2015. https://www.epi.org/files/pdf/82524.pdf
29 Resource segregation describes a lack of resources typically seen in areas where many of
the residents are people of color. This is due to policies that facilitated racial segregation, not
only of people, but also of loans for homeownership and capital for businesses. Segregation
of these three pillars of neighborhood stability led to segregation in the resources that they
generate, such as funding for schools, parks, transportation, grocery stores, and much more.
To learn more about segregation, please see Rothstein, Richard. “The Color of Law: A
Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America.” May 2017.
30 Gamblin, Marlysa D. “Mass Incarceration: A Major Cause of Hunger.” Bread for the
World Institute. Briefing Paper, Number 35. February 2018. http://www.bread.org/sites/default/files/downloads/briefing-paper-mass-incarceration-february-2018.pdf
31 Gamblin, Marlysa D. “Ending U.S. Hunger and Poverty by Focusing on Communities
Where It’s Most Likely.” Bread for the World Institute. Briefing Paper, Number 31. March
32 Over-policing means that a community has a heavy police presence that is not in proportion to its rate of serious crime. Over-policing is seen mainly in low-income communities,
particularly low-income communities of color. For more information on over-policing, see:
Gamblin, Marlysa D. “Mass Incarceration: A Major Cause of Hunger.” Bread for the World
Institute. Briefing Paper, Number 35. February 2018. http://www.bread.org/sites/default/files/
35 Murray-Garcia, Jann, and Melanie Tervalone. “Cultural Humility Versus Cultural
Competence: A Critical Distinction Defining Physician Training Outcomes in Multicultural
Education.” Journal of Healthcare for the Poor and Underserved. Vol. 9, No. 2. 1998. https://
36 Blood quantum is a term used to define bloodlines relating to ancestry. For example, a
person with one Indian grandparent and three non-Indian grandparents has one-quarter
Indian blood. Tribes that use blood quantum criteria require tribal members be at least
one-half to one-sixteenth blood of their tribe. For more on blood quantum, see: “Will current
blood quantum membership requirements make American Indians extinct?” National
Museum of the American Indian. September 2011. https://blog.nmai.si.edu/main/2011/09/
37 The federal government recognizes only 573 U.S. tribes. Other tribes are recognized by
their state, and still others are recognized by neither federal or state government. For more
information, see “Federal and State Tribes.” National Conference of State Legislatures.
38 Most of SNAP’s budget ($64 billion out of $70 billion) is distributed through Electronic
Benefit Transit (EBT) cards. Less than 1 percent of the SNAP budget is used for federal administrative costs and 6.5 percent is for state administrative costs. The remaining $2.5 billion
is allocated to other nutrition programs, including the Nutrition Assistance Block Grants
(NABG) for food assistance in Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands, and commodities for the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR).
To read more about NABG and FDPIR—two programs that act in place of SNAP—please see
APPLYING RACIAL EQUITY TO U.S. FEDERAL NUTRITION ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS: SNAP, WIC AND CHILD NUTRITION