Applying Racial Equity to U.S. Federal Nutrition Assistance Programs - Flipbook - Page 79
124 “The Characteristics of Native American WIC Participants, On and Off Reservations.”
U.S. Department of Agriculture. Food and Nutrition Service. Nutrition Assistance Program
Report Series, The Office of Analysis, Nutrition, and Evaluation. May 2002. https://fns-prod.
125 Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Background: Revisions to the WIC Food Package.
Feb 2018. https://www.fns.usda.gov/wic/background-revisions-wic-food-package
126 In Chicago, for example, participants have decreased saturated fats consumption,
increased fiber consumption, and increased fruit consumption. In New York State, WIC participants increased fruit, vegetable, and whole grain consumption as a result of changes to the
WIC food packages. Sources: https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/
127 Carlson, Steve and Zoe Neuberger. “WIC Works: Addressing the Nutrition and Health
Needs of Low-Income Families for 40 Years.” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Revised
March 25, 2017. https://www.cbpp.org/research/food-assistance/wic-works-addressing-the-nutrition-and-health-needs-of-low-income-families
128 “Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice Final Report: Slide
Release.” The National Academics of Sciences and Engineering. http://nationalacademies.
129 Cordova, Lynn. “Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Affects Natives Most, Study
Finds.” Indian Country Today. May 2017. https://newsmaven.io/indiancountrytoday/archive/
130 More than 11 African American infants die of every 1,000 live births and 7.61 Native
infants die of every 1,000 live births, compared to 5.06 white infants who die of every 1,000
live births. For more, see: “Infant Mortality Statistics From the 2013 Period Linked Birth/
Infant Death Data Set.” National Vital Statistics Reports. Vol 64, No. 9. August 2015. https://
131 “Breast Cancer: Key Findings.” American Institute for Cancer Research. http://www.aicr.
132 “The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding 2011.” U.S. Department
of Health and Human Services. U.S. Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General.
133 “Ovarian cancer risk is reduced by prolonged lactation: a case-control study in southern
China.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Volume 97, Issue 2, 1 February 2013,
Pages 354–359. https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/97/2/354/4577063?sid=a32809e9-b5ea485b-ae4e-1b919e703338
134 “Suboptimal breastfeeding in the United States: Maternal and pediatric health outcomes
and costs.” Wiley Online Library: Maternal and Child Nutrition. First published September
135 CinnaMoms, Los Angeles, CA. https://www.cinnamoms.org/
136 “The Power of Peer Counselors: A WIC Success Story.” National WIC Association. Feb
137 In Dallas, 78 percent of WIC mothers reported that peer counselors had a positive impact on their breastfeeding experience. 66 percent of mothers reported that peer counselors
helped them make the decision to initiate breastfeeding or to breastfeed longer. For more
success stories, see Breastfeeding Peer Counselor Evaluation Report, August 2011, Texas
Department of State Health Services.
138 “WIC Participants and Program Characteristics 2016 Final Report.” United States
Department of Agriculture. Food and Nutrition Service. Office of Policy Support April 2018.
141 Gallo, Mia V., and Lawrence M. Schell. “Overweight and Obesity among North American Indian Infants, Children, and Youth.” National Center for Biotechnology Information,
U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. 2012. https://www.ncbi.nlm.
142 “Obesity and Hispanic Americans.” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Office of Minority Health. https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=4&lvlid=70
143 “Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders.” U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services. Office of Minority Health. https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.
144 “Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives.” U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services. Office of Minority Health. https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/content.
145 “Diabetes and Hispanic Americans.” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Office of Minority Health. https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=4&lvlid=63
146 “Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders.” U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services. Office of Minority Health. https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.
147 “The Impact of the Nurses’ Health Study on Population Health: Prevention, Translation,
and Control.” National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of
Medicine, National Institutes of Health. September 2016. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/
148 While WIC does not collect or report data on breastfeeding rates, WIC does collect and
report the percent of WIC breastfeeding women by ethnicity. Breastfeeding women were disproportionately Hispanic/Latina (45.2 percent of breastfeeding women were Hispanic/Latina,
whereas 39.1 percent of all women participating in WIC were Hispanic/Latina). See https://
149 African American and Indigenous breastfeeding rates were higher for women who received prenatal support in WIC offices that provided peer counseling, compared to mothers
who did not receive prenatal care in WIC offices that provided peer counseling. For African
Americans, rates were almost 46 percent compared to 41 percent. For Indigenous mothers,
rates were close to 55 percent compared to 54 percent.
150 Receiving prenatal support at a WIC office that provided peer counseling had the great
positive impact on Pacific Islanders, when compared to breastfeeding rates for Pacific Islanders who receive prenatal support from WIC offices that did not offer peer counseling support.
For Pacific Islanders, rates were slightly above 61 percent compared to 51.6 percent.
151 African American Breastfeeding Network. http://aabnetwork.org/
152 Black Mother’s Breastfeeding Association. http://blackmothersbreastfeeding.org/
153 “Miles to Go Before We Sleep: Racial Inequities in Health.” National Center for
Biotechnology Information, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
September 2012. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3712789/
154 Floyd, Felicia, and Brenda Reyes. “First Food Justice: A Revolutionary Act.” National
First food Racial Equity Cohort. Race Forward Conference workshop. Cobo Center, Detroit,
MI. November 10, 2018.
155 “Fiscal Year 2019 WIC Legislative and Appropriations: Summary of NWA Fiscal Year
2019 Funding Requests.” National WIC Association. https://s3.amazonaws.com/aws.upl/
157 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Research and
Analysis. WIC Breastfeeding Peer Counseling Study, Final Implementation Report, WIC-10BPC. By Ann Collins, Catherine Dun Rappaport, and Nancy Burstein. Project Officer: Tracy
158 “Removing Barriers to Breastfeeding: A Structural Race Analysis to First Food.” Center
for Social Inclusion. https://www.centerforsocialinclusion.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/
159 Women of color are more likely to work in service industries with long hours and no or
limited flexibility. 32 percent of Latinas and 28 percent of African American women work in
service compared with only 20 percent of white women. In addition, white women are more
likely to have managerial and professional jobs with greater flexibility. U.S. Department of
Labor, Women’s Bureau. “The Economic Status of Women of Color: A Snapshot.” https://
160 “Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice Final Report Slides.”
National Academics of Science, Engineering and Medicine. http://nationalacademies.org/
161 Pregnancy related death, also known as maternal mortality, is defined as death that
occurs within one year of giving birth as a result of a pregnancy related complication. “Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://
162 Indigenous infants are 1.6 times as likely to die as white infants. “Infant Mortality and
American Indians/Alaska Natives.” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Office
of Minority Health. https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=4&lvlid=38
163 Native Hawaiian infants are 1.7 times as likely to die as white infants. “Infant Mortality
and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders.” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Office of Minority Health. https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=4&lvlid=83
164 African American infants are 2.2 times as likely to die as white infants. “Infant Mortality
and African Americans.” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Office of Minori-
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