EMIS ReportDesign-Prelim 2020sep11 - Page 27

greater than 1 million sq ft in size, costs per square
foot showed a downward trend from above $0.20/sq
ft for portfolios under 1 million sq ft in size, reducing
to $0.05–$0.10/sq ft for portfolios above 3 million sq
ft. Many of the data infrastructure costs for any FDD
project, regardless of portfolio size, are similar. FDD
is generally applied to larger buildings because it has
a higher base cost and is more time-consuming to
implement than EIS.
Large portfolios gain benefits in implementing EMIS
across the portfolio, including the ability to use EIS to
benchmark their buildings, manage energy use from a
single location, and potentially control building systems
remotely through an operations center. The type of
FDD used by Campaign participants was focused on
addressing issues in complex HVAC systems; other
FDD products exist for packaged HVAC but were not
used by Campaign participants. FDD software was
more often implemented on the larger buildings in a
portfolio due to the complexity of the systems and
significant energy savings opportunities. EIS are
implemented across a wide range of building sizes
since whole building meter data is the minimum
necessary input.
because there are more BAS data and a variety of
points must be mapped for use in the FDD software.
The high end of the base cost occurred at sites where
the FDD was installed at greater depth or on more
complex systems. Data integration across the BAS and
many devices drove the higher base cost.
The low end of the base cost generally occurred
when there were fewer points brought into the EMIS.
Some FDD installations included all available BAS
points and FDD rules,
Large portfolios
while others focused more
gain benefits in
narrowly on key systems.
implementing EMIS
For example, the lowest
across the portfolio
base cost for FDD was for
a large installed floor area
that focused on FDD for their central plants and did
not implement diagnostics at the zone level. In cases
in which data was straightforward to access from the
BAS, owners tended to bring all the BAS data into the
FDD software even if the data were not initially being
used in fault algorithms. For installations with more
difficulty accessing and mapping the BAS data to the
FDD software, fewer points were included to reduce
installation costs.
In reviewing how the base cost of EMIS changes
with the size of the portfolio implementation, a few
trends emerged. For EIS installations, the base cost
per square foot was largely stable across portfolio
sizes up to 5 million sq ft, with costs between $0.01–
$0.05/sq ft. The economies of scale for the base cost
of FDD as the building portfolio size increases were
more apparent. For FDD implementations in portfolios
Recurring cost
Recurring costs for FDD were higher than for EIS.
This cost difference was due to the complexity of
tuning existing FDD rules to the organizations’ HVAC
systems and interpreting diagnostic results. As
previously noted, the EMIS recurring costs include
two components: the annual licensing/software-as-a-
FIGURE 10: Base cost by EMIS type
(n = 68)
Base Cost ($/sq ft)
Median EIS recurring cost: $0.01/sq ft (n = 35)
Median FDD recurring cost: $0.06/sq ft (n = 33)
Berkeley Lab | Proving the Business Case for Building Analytics

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